There was a significant cultural rebellion against Adolph Hitler by many entertainers and artists who eventually had to leave Germany, many of whom later became big names in Hollywood. The German cabaret scene, with its brilliant stand up comedians who specialized in the poison cookie, that seemingly innocent joke with a darker twist, was a vibrant part of German culture until the cabarets were outlawed by German Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels. Marlene Dietrich became very popular in Germany after her role in the Blue Angel, a tragicomic film about the dark side of Germany, before she fled the scene and became an international actress based in California. George Grosz’s ink drawings of the common people of Berlin are haunting to look at, yet this German Army veteran of World War I fled his homeland in 1933 to become a prominent artist in New York City for twenty-three years. Fritz Lang, an Austrian WWI soldier who was injured three times during the war, became a very successful director in Germany, including the haunting movie M, starring Peter Lorre as a child murderer. Lang fled to France and then Hollywood during the rise of the Nazis, where he struggled to find the kind of creative license that he had known earlier in Germany. Nevertheless, Lang was very influential on prominent film makers such as Francois Truffaut. Peter Lorre, of course, was a very dynamic character actor in several classic American films, such as The Maltese Falcon and Casablanca. Like Dietrich, he fled Germany to become an international star. Billy Wilder was a Polish Jew who was quite successful as a movie director in Germany before he had to flee the Nazis, and his success in Hollywood was extraordinary. In movies like The Apartment, a very American film starring Shirley MacClain, Jack Lemon and Fred MacMurray, Wilder demonstrated an ability to transfer his talents to very different cultures. Other artists did not make such an easy international transition, such as playwright Bertold Brecht, who fled to Russia, yet never seemed to recover the creativity he had enjoyed during the heady days of the rebellion against Hitler and the Nazis. The Weimar period in Germany is known best to Americans from the movie Cabaret, starring Liza Minnelli, yet this movie is slightly different than the book from which it came. Christopher Isherwood, and English writer, wrote about Sally Bowles, a young woman in Berlin who hung around seedy Berlin bars with angry veterans of World War I, a far cry from “come to the cabaret my friend,” as romanticized in the movie’s song. Yet the influence of those cabarets, and their cry out for freedom against Adolph Hitler, was a cry heard far and wide internationally, as many of the rebels were able to make their influence known elsewhere.
The chaos that existed in Germany following the First World War had a lot to do with Adolph Hitler’s rise to power. Without an occupying force to settle things down, there was a simmering civil war between different political groups, such as the socialists, the communists and right wing organizations including the group which would become the Nazis. The Nazis reveled in street violence, and Hitler’s early speeches to large beer drinking crowds were often policed by random paramilitaries that quickly repressed any resistance in the crowd. Hitler used such paramilitaries, who came to be called the Brownshirts, in the unsuccessful coup attempt in Munich in 1923. Hitler was sent to prison after what became known as the Munich Putsch, where he wrote his famous book of rebellion, Mein Kampf, or My Struggle. The Brownshirts became more and more influential in Hitler’s rise to power in the late twenties and early thirties, as they repressed dissenting political organizations with extreme violence, brashly intimidating anyone who had the nerve to oppose the Nazis. After Hitler came to power in 1933, he had to bring his own paramilitaries under control, to solidify his political support with parts of Germany who were not comfortable with such chaotic random violence. The German military were also not pleased with unpredictable power of the Brownshirts, and Hitler certainly did not want them to think him a disorganized and chaotic leader. He solved this with a series of political assassinations that became known as the Night of the Long Knives, in which over 85 people where killed and more than a thousand political opponents were arrested. Longtime ally Ernst Rohm, who led the Brownshirts, was killed, as was Gregor Strasser, another Nazi leader who was far more liberal in his political beliefs than Hitler. The Gestapo, or Nazi Secret Police, were formally integrated as Hitler’s new agency of political enforcement, and the Brownshirts were consolidated as the SA, much more under Nazi control. Most of the German people became more comfortable with the Nazi’s power as being more stable, despite how Germany then became a one-party state. Hitler gave a speech justifying the violence, and German courts, strange as it may seem, ruled in favor of these extra-judicial killings, blessing Hitler to kill off any political opponents as he saw fit. One world leader who noted Hitler’s success in this organized political murder was Josef Stalin, who would soon begin his own system of using execution to enhance his political power in a genocide that would soon make Hitler seem small time by comparison.
Everyone remembers Adolph Hitler’s holocaust but, in terms of numbers, Josef Stalin made him seem small time by comparison. The Nazis killed nine million of their own population, six million Jews and a mix of other minorities, but no one knows Stalin’s totals, which are estimated between forty and eighty million. Stalin started out as a strong-arm enforcer for the Bolsheviks, and enlarged that role exponentially after he took over the reins of power after the death of Vladimir Lenin. Stalin had served a couple of stints of incarceration in Siberia as a result of his own revolutionary activities, and he would later subject the Soviet Union’s citizens into that type of incarceration by the millions. Ukraine was known as the breadbasket of Asia, and it became literally that as Stalin starved its inhabitants to death and removed all grain and other farm products from the country to sell to other nations to build his army. Ten million, it is estimated, died in that horrific crime against humanity. Stalin himself would travel through the Ukraine on a train to visit his wealthy dacha in the Crimea, in a train that carried the most delicious gourmet foods for the Soviet leader. If Stalin looked out the windows of his train he would have seen the starving population of the Ukraine, many of whom went to the train stations in the hope of getting out to somewhere where there was food, only to be roughly denied the opportunity by Soviet Soldiers. Stalin was a master of political prosecutions of Soviet Officials, many of whom were formerly close associates of the ruthless dictator. Accused of invariably false charges, the Show Trials were absurd theatrical displays of lies in the guise of justice, often watched by Stalin from behind a protective screen. Thereafter, Soviet officials lived their lives in a state of paralyzing fear, in constant dread that they might be the next to be chosen to take the march toward the persecution and death. Neither was it safe to be part of his bureaucracy of persecution, for often a man who was head torturer one day would be head victim the next, and no one was safe from the idiosyncratic persecution of this evil man. So the persecution led many ordinary citizens to be imprisoned in the gulags that Stalin had built for slave laborers across the Asian continent, where millions where imprisoned and subjected to horrifying treatment that often killed off the captives. So any Soviet citizen might say the wrong thing to the wrong person and end up in the Gulags, which existed long after, even past the death of Stalin in 1953. Such a genocidal system, in short, made Adolph Hitler seem like a minor leaguer.
Hitler’s first lucky break came 13 years before he was born. His father changed his name from Shicklegruber to Hitler, and thus gave the future dictator a name that was far more slogan-ready. It is hard to imagine nearly all of Germany rising to salute a leader in unison chanting “Heil Shicklegruber!” This was one of many lucky breaks for Adolph Hitler, enabling a sociopathic individual with very dark personality traits to become the leader of a great nation and propel a world war that resulted in the death of between fifty and eighty million people. His main talent was in public speaking, but his message was, in the 1920s, only for a small far right audience. He would speak to crowds of beer drinking German nationalists who responded well to his sarcasm laced rants about the necessity of a new Germany rising up to cleanse the world of its problems. It was the Great Depression that was a very lucky break for Adolph, causing millions of unemployed Germans to be much more receptive to his message. Without the stock market crash of 1929, Hitler would have been just another beer hall rabble rouser. In power, however, he also had lucky breaks, including the survival of two assassination attempts. The first was by a carpenter who built a bomb into a podium from which Hitler was to speak. Hitler, however, paranoid man that he was, felt with good reason that people were trying to kill him, and changed his speaking time so that the bomb went off thirteen minutes too late to kill the genocidal dictator. This occurred in 1939, so the bomber failed in his wish to stop the Second World War. The second attempt to kill Hitler was in 1944, when many officers were well aware that Germany was going to lose the war, and that the military must get rid of Hitler before their beloved Armed Services were destroyed by the Allied Powers if the war continued onward. In this case Hitler’s luck was quite amazing. In an underground bunker the briefcase holding the bomb was inadvertently moved away from Hitler by an officer giving a presentation. When it went off, the table Hitler was sitting at shielded him from the major force of the impact, although four others near him were killed. Thus Hitler, a rampant extremist, was able to continue to go forward with his all or nothing strategy, and Germany ended up with hundreds of thousands more dead than if he had done the responsible thing and surrendered earlier. But, then again, Hitler was not a responsible man, and unfortunately, he had the luck of the Devil.
Al Smith was Governor of New York before his nomination for President in 1928, but his path to fame was less distinguished, as he rose up through the ranks of Tammany Hall. Starting out working with the pier workers on the docks of New York City, one of the major bases of Tammany’s political machine, Smith was fully a part of the organization which regularly took bribes from immigrants in exchange for citizenship, and packed the votes of many elections to ensure that their candidates won the elections. Before the Great Depression started in 1929. political machines were the source of support for people in need of economic help, as the Federal Government was not involved in welfare, unemployment insurance or any other benefits we have grown so used to. Smith appealed to the urban immigrants as a source of political support while campaigning for President, but he lost to Republican candidate Herbert Hoover in an election where the nation was still high on the economic boom of the 1920s. Smith was especially unique in his rebellion against Prohibition, and people knew he longed for the good old days when people could quaff beers in the saloon with impunity. Franklin Delano Roosevelt handily won the election in 1932, successfully marshaling the urban political coalition that Smith had started to organize. When Roosevelt began to Federalize aid for the needy with his New Deal program, however, Smith rebelled, feeling that such aid should stay local so that it could be more personal and less wasteful. Perhaps he felt that Tammany Hall was not all bad, as it did more for people than pack the vote. Smith’s sympathies in this regard were not in line with the trends of the 20th century, however, as the Federal Government established scores of programs under the Democratic Party to help the needy. In some ways, Smith’s political positions were part of the ethics of a bygone age.
The Democratic Party nominated William Jennings Bryan three times for President, but he never won. He galvanized the Democratic Convention in 1896 with his Cross of Gold speech, where he shook the rafters with his stark demand that the US Monetary System be taken off of the Gold Standard. Bryan, however, represented the old version constituency of the Democratic Party, as his message appealed to farmers and miners in the southern and western United States. Originally a congressman from Nebraska, Bryan came from what is now a bygone age, and desperately wanted small farmers and men who toiled in the mines to have a better standard of living and more political power. The demographics of political change, however, were not on his side, as the immigrants in American cities were on the increase and farmers and miners were on the decrease. His ideals, such as the importance of religion and American isolationism, also came to push him to the sidelines, as the world was changing, and not in a way that pleased him. Woodrow Wilson made him Secretary of State when he won the Presidency in 1912, but Bryan resigned when Wilson decided to enter the First World War. Similarly, Bryan was the prosecuting attorney in the Scopes Trial, where he stood with the fundamentalist cultural forces that wanted religion taught in schools rather than evolution. The defense attorney, Clarence Darrow, prohibited by the Tennessee Court from calling scientists from places like Harvard, put Bryan on the stand and made fun of some of the improbabilities of taking the words of the Bible literally. Unfortunately for Bryan, the media made him a laughing stock as a result of this testimony in 1925, and the inspiring political speeches he gave in the past were long forgotten. Sincere as his beliefs were, it is sad to say, Bryan was on the wrong side of history.
Joseph Pulitzer made Nellie Bly famous in 1888 by having her circle the Globe in under eighty days, beating the fictional record set in Jules Verne’s novel, Around the World in Eighty Days. Pulitzer’s papers followed her progress in feature stories as she went from continent to continent, and massive crowds flocked to the pier when she returned to Manhattan.
Famous though this jaunt made her, it was far less courageous than many of Nellie’s other investigations. She got a job in a sweatshop factory to make informed reports of the cruelty to which women were subjected there. She lived and investigated terrible conditions in Mexico so effectively that the Mexican government grew sick of the bad publicity and kicked her out of the country. She imitated a mentally ill person so effectively that Blackwell Insane Asylum admitted her, and she was witness to so many atrocities that her investigation prompted a reform movement of mental hospitals. She wrote a book on the subject, entitled Ten Days in a Mad-House, detailing her much needed investigation. In her day to day reporting she wrote important articles about government corruption and the exploitation of child labor, women’s rights and underpaid immigrants in terrible factories.
Bly showed incredible courage in blazing a trail for other women reporters, for few women were able to break this glass ceiling until much later in the 20th century. Her willingness to risk her own life to report on cruelty and injustice should be an inspiration to any investigative reporter who wants to expose injustice.
In 1871, James Gordon Bennett got so drunk at his own engagement party that he urinated into the piano, resulting in his getting kicked out of Manhattan high society. His former fiance’s brother attacked him there with a horse whip the next day, causing Bennett to flee such social ignominy for the comfort of France, where he lived and ran the Herald via telegram, for the most part, for the rest of his life. Such an arrangement necessitated some unusual working arrangements, such as employees tattling on each other for offences real or imagined to their boss via telegram. Such an arrangement was called the White Mice, and led to an atmosphere of intrigue at the Herald. Bennett continued his aggressive drinking habits in France, which were quite noticeable. In a Paris restaurant that he spent a great deal of money in, he did not hesitate to make waves. Bennett would walk up to the tables of dining couples and announce that he was a magician, then attempt to yank their tablecloth from beneath their repast, resulting in a flying mess that erupted upon the diners. He would pay the bills for the meals and the dry cleaning, and the restaurant would never kick out this high paying customer. On one occasion he could have been arrested from drunken coaching, if such laws had been enforced at the time. Wildly careening home to his castle at the reins of a coach with four horses galloping recklessly onward, Bennett did not notice that an archway he was about to go under was a bit low. It was so low, in fact, that it smashed into his forehead, knocking him ass-backwards off of the coach and onto the ground below.
Despite his unusual drinking habits, however, Bennett was an impressive journalist, and kept the Herald as the international paper that Abraham Lincoln had previously chosen as his principal newspaper to read. An inventive man, Bennett sent Henry Morgan Stanley across Africa to find the noted medical philanthropist Dr. Livingstone in the heart of that broad continent after a rather perilous journey to find him. When Stanley was feted with a ticker-tape parade on Manhattan, however, Bennett became incensed, feeling that he was the man who should have been honored, because it was his idea, was it not?!
Whatever his uniqueness in many ways, Bennett was a historical figure in the history of American journalism. The main English newspaper in Paris today is the International Herald Tribune, formerly the Paris Herald, which Bennett established in the late nineteenth century. He was truly an American in Paris.
Orson Welles’ Citizen Kane shows a lonely, grumpy old man isolated with his second wife in his baronial castle, a couple who trade ghastly insults like human gargoyles. This impression is incorrect, for Hearst and his mistress, Marion Davies, had a solid and loving relationship that she stayed faithful to despite the fact that he could never marry her, as his first wife would not grant him a divorce. Neither was his castle, San Simeon, a lonely place, for Hearst was forever entertaining scores of guests in a most generous manner. It was the portrayal of Davies that caused Hearst to try to stop the release of the movie, for she was a far nicer woman than the movie version, and had no weakness for alcohol whatsoever.
On the other hand the movie is quite accurate in showing Hearst as an outgoing and talented man who had a penchant for attracting peoples’ attention in a most sensational manner. This talent was demonstrated when Hearst was quite young, when he set off flares in the locked bathroom screaming for help from his parents as though he were trapped in a fire. Hearst was not punished for this crude misdeed, nor did his mother restrain him years later went he lost millions a year promoting his newly created news empire. In this the movie is quite accurate, for Hearst was, if nothing else, a showman extraordinaire, having created a dynamic corporation that still exists to this day.
The actual William Randolph Hearst was a creature of contradictions. In person, he was the nicest guy you’d ever want to meet, yet from a distance (as in through his newspapers) he could attack with the vengeance of a tiger. Many of the economic elite of the Gilded Age found this out to their own remorse. Colis P. Huntington, for instance, the railroad magnate, tried unsuccessfully to cry poverty and abandon payment of his loans from the government when Hearst pointed this out throughout the country.
One other impression that is somewhat inaccurate is that Hearst was purely a sensationalist whose desire the sell papers trumped any attachment to the truth. This characterization is from his circulation war with Joseph Pulitzer during the Spanish American War in 1898, when the term yellow journalism was created, a demeaning one that assaulted Hearst’s entire newspaper career. The truth is that, though Hearst was far from perfect, his pugnacious style of journalism did a great deal of good for the America of his day, setting precedents for journalists who followed after him to confront the powers that be.
William Randolph Hearst was an extraordinary fellow, one of the creators of what we today call the Fourth Estate. He was an aggressive man, who assaulted many of the injustices of his day, yet in his personal life he was far more polite and reserved than Citizen Kane might suggest.